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Date: 5/02/2022

The 15 Most Exploited Vulnerabilities In 2021

Overview

Just released, a review of cybersecurity vulnerabilities released In 2021 show that threat actors aggressively exploited newly disclosed critical software vulnerabilities to hit a broad set of targets worldwide, published in the latest advisory published by the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA).

Potential Impact

The list of top 15 CVEs routinely exploited by attackers in 2021 as defined by the CISA and cybersecurity company Five Winds are

  • CVE-2021-44228 (aka Log4Shell) – in Apache Log4j
  • CVE-2021-40539 – in Zoho ManageEngine AD SelfService Plus
  • CVE-2021-34523, CVE-2021-34473 and CVE-2021-31207 (collectively known as ProxyShell) – in Microsoft Exchange Server
  • CVE-2021-27065, CVE-2021-26858, CVE-2021-26857, CVE-2021-26855 (collectively known as ProxyLogon) – in Microsoft Exchange Server
  • CVE-2021-26084 – in Atlassian Confluence Server and Data Center
  • CVE-2021-21972 – in VMware vSphere Client
  • CVE-2020-1472 (aka ZeroLogon) – in Microsoft Netlogon Remote Protocol (MS-NRPC)
  • CVE-2020-0688 – in Microsoft Exchange Server
  • CVE-2019-11510 – in Pulse Secure Pulse Connect Secure
  • CVE-2018-13379 – in Fortinet FortiOS and FortiProxy

As you might have noticed due to the last few entries, attackers haven’t stopped exploiting older publicly known software flaws.

General Recommended Actions

The CISA also advises organizations to use a centralized patch management system and to replace end-of-life software. If any those actions can’t be performed by internal security teams, organizations should consider switching to reputable cloud-based offerings and start using managed service providers.

Sources
https://www.helpnetsecurity.com/2022/04/28/most-exploited-vulnerabilities-2021/
https://www.cisa.gov/uscert/ncas/alerts/aa22-117a

LAPSUS$: Recent techniques, tactics and procedures

Overview

This post review techniques observed during recent LAPSUS$ incidents.

  • Access and scraping of corporate Microsoft SharePoint sites
  • Access to local password managers and databases
  • Living off the land; Cloning of git repositories and extraction of sensitive API Keys
  • Using compromised credentials to access corporate VPNs
  • Disruption or destruction to victim infrastructure
Potential Impact

Over the last 5 months, LAPSUS$ has gained large notoriety with some successful breaches of some large enterprises including, Microsoft, Nvidia, Okta & Samsung. Little is still known about this group with motivations appearing to be for reputation, money and “for the lulz”.

Threat Intelligence shows that LAPSUS$ utilize multiple methods to gain Initial access. The main source of initial access is believed to occur via stolen authentication cookies which would grant the attacker access to a specific application. Then, credential harvesting and privileged escalation are key components of the LAPSUS$ breaches, with the LAPSUS$ group being seen to elevate from a standard user account to an administrative user within a couple of days. The security research team at NCC Group has observed disruption and destruction to client environments by LAPSUS$ such as shutting down virtual machines from within on-premises VMware ESXi infrastructure, to the extreme of mass deletion of virtual machines, storage, and configurations in cloud environments making it harder for the victim to recover and for the investigation team to conduct their analysis activities.

Recommended Actions
  • Ensure that Cloud computing environments have sufficient logging enabled.
  • Ensure that cloud administrative access is configured to prevent unauthorized access to resources and that API keys are not overly permissive to the permissions they require.
  • Utilize MFA for user authentication on both cloud and remote access solutions to help reduce the risk of unauthorized access.
  • Ensure logging is in place to record MFA device enrolment
  • Security controls such as Conditional Access can help restrict or prevent unauthorized access based on criteria such as geographical location.
  • Implement activities to detect and investigate anomalies in VPN access.
  • Ensure a system is in place to record all helpdesk queries.
  • Avoid using SMS as an MFA vector to avoid the risk of SIM swapping.
  • Securing source code environments to ensure that users can only access the relevant repositories.
  • Centralize logging including cloud applications (SIEM solution).
  • Offline or immutable backups of servers should be taken to ensure that in the event of a data disruption or destruction attack, services can be restored.
  • Reduce MFA token/Session cookie validity times
  • Ensure principle of least privilege for user accounts is being adhered to.
  • Social engineering awareness training for all staff.

Sources
https://research.nccgroup.com/2022/04/28/lapsus-recent-techniques-tactics-and-procedures/

How Cybercriminals Abuse Cloud Tunneling Services

Overview

Cloud tunneling services, which allow users to expose internal systems from their homes or businesses to the internet by relaying the traffic through cloud-based systems, have grown in use over the past few years. Unfortunately, as with any kind of service that helps developers and infrastructure administrators, cybercriminals have been abusing these services for various illicit operations.

Potential Impact

During its research, Trend Micro Researchers categorized cloud tunneling service abuse into two malicious use cases: internal threats and external threats. Internal threats are attacks where cloud tunneling services are unknowingly used on an infected endpoint or network to expose internal services like SMB, FTP, and HTTP, while external threats are the more typical cyberattacks such as phishing, drive-by download, and malware command-and-control (C&C) communication through the cloud tunnel network.

General Recommended Actions

Limit access should only to users who need these services. Doing this can prevent attackers who gain access to the network from using the services for C&C, data exfiltration, or other malicious purposes. Employees with access to these tunneling services should be regularly checked and logged for access to these services to ensure that their access is being used for approved purposes as defined by the organization.

For large organizations, it might be a consideration from a security standpoint to prevent employees from using cloud tunneling to expose services to the internet, and to use a virtual private network (VPN) instead to connect to the intranet.

Sources
https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/news/cybercrime-and-digital-threats/how-cybercriminals-abuse-cloud-tunneling-services

New RIG Exploit Kit Dropping Redline Steal malware via IE/Edge Browsers

Overview

A new RIG Exploit Kit campaign has been discovered that exploits, CVE-2021-26411, a memory corruption vulnerability affecting Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge browsers. Exploitation occurs when a user visits a compromised site involved in this campaign.

Potential Impact

Upon exploitation, malware named Redline Stealer is installed. This allows attackers to steal passwords, cookies, VPN login credentials, crypto wallets, credit card data saved in browsers, or other items per instructions from command-and-control (“C2”) infrastructure.

Recommended Actions

A patch for CVE-2021-26411 was released by Microsoft in March 2021, but attackers are taking advantage of unpatched systems. It is strongly recommended that end user devices are kept up to date and protected with robust antimalware and Endpoint Detection & Response solutions to prevent these types of threats.

Sources
https://latesthackingnews.com/2022/05/02/new-rig-exploit-kit-campaign-drops-redline-stealer-malware/
https://msrc.microsoft.com/update-guide/vulnerability/CVE-2021-26411

Cisco Patches ~20 Vulnerabilities, Including 11 “High Severity”

Overview

Cisco patches almost 20 vulnerabilities in various Cisco appliances including Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA), Firepower Threat Defense (FTD), and Firepower Management Center (FMC).

Eleven of these vulnerabilities are rated with a ‘high’ severity according to Cisco.

Potential Impact

Among these vulnerabilities includes several potential denial of service (DoS) vulnerabilities that are remotely exploitable. Along with those includes privilege escalation and security protection bypass vulnerabilities.

Recommended Actions

Cisco has published all these patches and remediation guides in its Cisco Event Response: April 2022 Cisco ASA, FMC, and FTD Software Advisory Bundled Publication which was released on April 7, 2022.

It is recommended that any organization using Cisco products – specifically the ASA, FMC, and FTD products – to review this publication and patch/remediate appropriately.

Sources
https://www.securityweek.com/cisco-patches-11-high-severity-vulnerabilities-security-products?&web_view=true
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/viewErp.x?alertId=ERP-74836

Fake Windows Update Installs Ransomware

Overview

An increase in ransomware reporting has increased worldwide during this past week according to BleepingComputer.com. One of the most common occurring variants is Magniber, deploying what appears to be Windows 10 updates with various names. Some of the most common include “Win10.0_System_Upgrade_Software.msi” and “Security_Upgrade_Software_Win10.0.msi”, and other ones such as “System.Upgrade.Win10.0-KB47287134.msi”. Although some of the updates can be downloaded from fake warez and crack sites, it is unclear how all the updates are being downloaded at this time because this ransomware has been distributed globally on a large scale.

Potential Impact

While it targets more individuals than businesses, users must still be aware not to click on any fraudulent Windows 10 updates. Magniber’s ransomware is advanced and will not allow for an attack on the ransomware’s vulnerabilities to retrieve your files.

Recommended Actions

To ensure that the ransomware is not downloaded, it is important to only download updates that are found after searching “Check for Updates” in the start menu search bar. It is also essential to back up files safely and efficiently.

Sources
Fake Windows 10 updates infect you with Magniber ransomware (bleepingcomputer.com)

For strategic clients, your vCISO will add this to your next Office Hours for further discussion. However, if you have an immediate need, concern, or question, please reach out to them directly.

For non-strategic clients, please reach out to your Advisor for further discussion.

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